- 1 Take personal protective equipment, documents, food and water.
- 1.1 Toxic substances as chemical weapons. Abstract
Take personal protective equipment, documents, food and water.
Civil defense. Emergencies of man-caused, ecological, natural and military nature. Notification of the population in emergencies in peacetime and wartime
"Civil Defense of Ukraine is a state system of government, forces and means created to organize and ensure the protection of the population from the consequences of emergencies of man-made, environmental, natural and military nature" (law "About civil defense of Ukraine" Art. one).
Citizens of Ukraine have the right to protect their lives and health from the consequences of accidents, catastrophes, significant fires, natural disasters. The Government of Ukraine, other executive bodies, administrations of enterprises, institutions and organizations, regardless of ownership and management, must ensure the implementation of this right. The state, as the guarantor of this right, creates a system of civil defense.
Its purpose is to protect the population from the dangerous consequences of accidents and catastrophes, from natural disasters, highly toxic substances, and weapons. Civil defense measures apply to the entire territory of Ukraine, to all segments of the population. The distribution of these measures in terms of scope and responsibility for their implementation is carried out on a territorial and production basis.
The tasks of the Civil Defense of Ukraine are:
prevention of emergencies of man-made origin and implementation of measures aimed at reducing losses and losses in case of accidents, catastrophes, explosions, large fires and natural disasters; informing the population about the threat and occurrence of emergencies in peacetime and wartime and constant informing about the current situation; protection of compare and contrast essay buy the population from the consequences of accidents, catastrophes, natural disasters and from danger in wartime; organization and carrying out of rescue and other urgent works in disaster areas and centers of defeat; creation of systems of analysis and forecasting, management, notification and communication, monitoring and control of radioactive, chemical and bacteriological contamination, keeping them ready for operation in peacetime and wartime emergencies; training and retraining of management, governing bodies and CO forces; teaching the population the rules of use of personal protective equipment and handling in emergencies.
Emergencies of man-caused, ecological, natural and military nature
An accident is a violation of the normal operation of a certain mechanism, which leads to significant damage, destruction of property, damage and death. A catastrophe is a major accident with tragic consequences.
Dangerous consequences of major accidents are fires and explosions. Boilers, cylinders, pipelines at industrial enterprises, coal dust and gas in mines, steam of paints and varnishes at furniture and woodworking enterprises explode under high pressure. At the facilities of the oil, chemical and gas industries, the accident is caused by gassiness of the atmosphere, spillage of oil products, aggressive liquids and highly toxic substances (SDOR).
The most dangerous accidents can occur at enterprises that produce, use or store highly toxic, explosive and flammable substances and materials. These are enterprises of chemical, oil refining, petrochemical and other related industries; enterprises that have refrigeration plants that use ammonia; these are also railway stations where there are sludge tracks with SDOR; these are warehouses and bases with stocks of pesticides.
Most accidents occur due to: violation of production technologies, rules of operation of equipment, machines and mechanisms; low labor and technological discipline; non-compliance with security measures; unsatisfactory implementation of advanced fire extinguishing systems: lack of proper monitoring of equipment, as well as due to natural disasters.
Potent toxic substances (SDOR)
Today there are up to 6 million chemicals in the world; 90% of them are organic compounds, most of which are toxic. The concept of toxic chemicals is used in industrial technology "harmful substance"; in contact with the human body, it can cause injuries, poisoning, disease and other abnormalities in health.
Civil defense does not include all harmful substances, but only those that contaminate the air in dangerous concentrations that can cause mass damage to humans, animals and plants.
A natural disaster is an extraordinary natural phenomenon that acts with great destructive force, causes significant damage to the area in which it occurs, disrupts the normal functioning of the population, destroys material values. Consider the main types of natural disasters.
Fires are the spontaneous spread of fire that has gotten out of human control. Fires occur in forests and peatlands, in residential and industrial premises, in energy networks and in transport. Fires cause enormous material damage and often lead to death.
Floods are significant inland floods when water in rivers rises above normal levels due to heavy rainfall, rapid snowmelt, ice congestion, or when the wind blows water from the sea into the mouths of rivers.
Earthquakes – phenomena that occur in certain parts of the earth’s crust. This is one of the terrible natural disasters. It comes suddenly. And although the duration of the main shock does not exceed a few seconds, its reach enormous proportions. It is impossible to prevent, stop or avoid an earthquake. People do not know how to accurately predict its beginning.
More than 100,000 earthquakes occur on the globe every year; most of them lead to the death of thousands of people and to various destructions.
Mud flows are a rapid movement from the mountains of the village – a mixture of water, stones, gravel, sand and clay; they flood, destroy everything in their path.
Landslides occur more often on the banks of rivers and reservoirs. The main reason for their occurrence is the saturation of groundwater of clayey rocks to a fluid state, as a result of which huge masses of soil are shifted down the slopes, and with it – all the structures.
Snow drifts are formed in winter during snowfalls and can be so large that they become a natural disaster.
A hurricane is an increase in wind to 35 m / s and more (12 points on the Beaufort scale).
Gust – a sharp short-term increase in wind (from a few minutes to several tens of minutes), sometimes up to 30-70 m / s with a change in its direction, more often during a thunderstorm. The width of the squall is 2-3 km.
Notification of the population in emergencies in peacetime and wartime
Among the set of measures to protect the population during emergencies, an important place belongs to the organization of timely notification. This is the task of civil defense bodies.
The sound of sirens, intermittent beeps of enterprises and signals of vehicles mean a warning signal "Attention everyone!"… At this signal you need to turn on the radio, broadcast and. television receivers for listening to urgent messages.
In peacetime, information is transmitted about accidents at a nuclear power plant or at a chemically hazardous site, reports of a possible earthquake or flood, storm warning.
The texts of the information can be as follows:
Warning! Says the Civil Defense Headquarters. Citizens! There was an accident at the plant "Obolon" with pouring SDOR – ammonia. A cloud of poisoned air spreads in the direction of the Obolon housing estate. The population living or working on Marshala Malynovsky Street, Pivnichna Street, Oboronsky Avenue, stay in their premises and carry out additional sealing. The population living or working on Priozernaya, Mate Zalky and Druzhby Narodiv streets should immediately leave residential buildings, premises of enterprises, organizations, institutions and go to the Petrivka station area. Inform the neighbors about the heard information. Continue to act on the instructions of the Civil Defense Headquarters.
Warning! Says the Civil Defense Headquarters. Citizens! Due to the rising water level in the Dnieper River, houses near the streets are expected to be flooded … The population living on these streets will be able to collect the necessary things, food, water, turn off the gas, electricity and leave … neighbors, help out elderly and sick people. In the event of a sudden rise in water level, take a seat on a hill (upper floors of houses, roofs, trees) and wait for help. Pay attention to the messages of the Civil Defense Headquarters.
When there is a threat of an enemy attack, local authorities and the headquarters of the Central Committee transmit resolutions and orders on the order of actions of the population through the mass media. From now on radio stations, TVs must be constantly turned on to receive new messages.
If there is an imminent danger of enemy strikes from the air or a threat of chemical or radioactive contamination, a signal is given first "Attention everyone!" and then a short message about the procedure and rules of conduct is broadcast on radio and television. Example:
Warning! Says the Civil Defense Headquarters. Citizens! Air alarm! Turn off the lights, gas, water, put out the fire in the furnaces. Take personal protective equipment, documents, food and water. Warn your neighbors, help the sick and the elderly. Go to the protective structure as soon as possible or hide behind the bumps in the area, keep calm and order. Pay attention to the messages of the Civil Defense Headquarters.
Toxic substances as chemical weapons. Abstract
Infection of terrain and objects of PR. Sampling rules for analysis. Indication of PR and poisons
Infection of terrain and objects of PR
When the enemy uses chemical weapons, the terrain and the objects located on it can be infected with PR. Contaminated objects are those whose surface contains or contains toxic substances.
The degree and duration of PR infection of objects and objects of the environment are determined by the type of PR, their physical state, the density of infection, meteorological conditions and time of year. The degree of infection also depends on the application of protection measures, the terrain, nature and properties of the object.